Milk is also an excellent source of Lactococcus. Sources and Causes of High Bacteria Counts in Raw Milk: An Abbreviated Review Milk is synthesized in specialized cells of the mammary gland and is virtually sterile when secreted into the alveoli of the udder (Tolle, 1980). Hence milk curdles as it sours, or the casein precipitates more completely at low pH. As the pH falls the charge on casein falls and it precipitates. Usually contaminated environments are a potential source of food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria present in raw milk bulk tank in the dairy farm, which are affecting the milk quality and emerging public health risk [34, 35, 36]. The harmful microorganisms found in milk can contaminate the milk at any of these stages and can lead to severe health risks. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. But, under certain conditions, it assumes great importance especially when wide mouth pails are used and outdoor milking is done in dusty yards without prior washing. This milk is completely untreated which means it is unpasteurized and there is the presence of harmful bacteria in the milk. Milk can be contaminated at any point in the milk production process. Raw milk is a major source of harmful pathogens. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or … Other sources of microbial contaminations of milk are … Skin, hair, feathers, gastrointestinal tracts, urinogenital tract, respiratory tracts and milk ducts (teat canals) in animals producing animals. The infant’s gut is initially colonized by bacteria that may come from different sources, such as breast milk… The cow herd should be monitored for preventing possible food-borne pathogens and food … to milk, or if acid-producing bacteria are allowed to grow in milk, the pH falls. However, unless the udder is infected, it is not considered to be an important source of such microorganisms. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. In lab studies, this probiotic bacterium has reduced pathogen counts 10,000-fold. Major Harmful Microorganisms found in Milk. L. lactis, for example, fights antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, such as Enterococcus faecium, protecting against infections. Recent research suggests a link between the infant’s gut bacterial community, or microbiome, and the adult microbiome; starting out with the right mix of beneficial bacteria in the gut influences health throughout the lifespan. For example, if one gram of teat soil containing 10 8 bacteria is allowed into the milk of one cow giving approximately 30 lb (~13,400 gm) of milk, the total bacteria count for that cow’s milk, excluding other sources, would be in excess of 7,000 per ml. An understanding of the sources of microorganisms in food is important to: develop methods to control access of some microbes in food. The whey proteins The whey proteins are also made up of a number of distinct proteins as shown in the scheme … Milking heavily soiled cows could potentially result in bulk milk … The key sources of contamination are: Faecal contamination from soiled animals, … Source of Bacteria in Milk Some bacteria are normally present in the udder of the cow, and these may contribute to the bacterial flora of the milk. It is the responsibility of the food business operator (milk producer) to identify these points and implement control measures to protect milk from contamination. 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